Energy use in conventional and organic milk and rye bread production in Finland
Grönroos, Juha; Seppälä, Jyri; Voutilainen, Pasi; Seuri, Pentti; Koikkalainen, Kauko (2006)
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Agriculture, ecosystems and environment
Energy use is one of the key indicators for developing more sustainable agricultural practices. For this reason, energy use in the production of conventional and organic milk and rye bread in Finland was studied by conducting a life cycle inventory (LCI). The product systems of milk and rye bread consisted of farming, production of fuels, electricity and fertilisers, as well as the processing phases of milk and bread, i.e. the dairy and the bakery. Transportation of fuels, raw materials and the final products was also taken into account. Primary energy consumption was 6.4 GJ in average conventional milk production and 4.4 GJ in average organic milk production, calculated per 1000 l of milk. For rye bread the values were 15.3 GJ (conventional) and 13.3 GJ (organic) per 1000 kg of rye bread. The proportion of renewable energy in the product systems studied varied between 7 and 16% of the total primary energy use, being somewhat higher in organic production. In milk production, energy use efficiency can be increased by favouring organic production. Making changes in the energy use patterns of bakeries would be the fastest way to affect the energy profile of bread, because bakery is responsible for 70 and 80 % of the total energy consumption in conventional and organic bread production, respectively.
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