Oats in Argentina: New varieties
Wehrhahne, Liliana (2004)
Agrifood Research ReportsMaa- ja elintarviketalous
In Argentina oat is grown in a large area, about 2.5 million hectares. It is used primarily as forage for cattle, but in our country is possible to obtain pasture, hay and grain. The area production of oat grain has diminished in Argentina in the last years because it is a less profitable crop than wheat and barley and lack of demand. The main objectives of the Barrow breeding program are the development of new cultivars with higher yield potential (forage and /or grain), better adaptability to different regions, better grain quality, resistance to the most important diseases, such as crown rust (Puccinia coronata Cdo.), stem rust (Puccinia graminis f.sp. avenae), tolerance to aphids, tolerance to frost, etc. With the help (collaboration) of the program šBreeding Oat Cultivars Suitable for Production in Developing Countriesš from Quaker Co.and the University Federal of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brasil, we can released new varieties. In the last years we released: Bonaerense Payé (1991), Bonaerense INTA Calén (1998), Bonaerense INTA Maja (1998) and Bonaerense INTA Canai (2003). The most important problem of oat crop are the rusts, crown rust in forage oats and stem rust in grain oats. Both of them cause high damage, lowering yields and quality, and the new varieties are subjected to tremendous rust pressure. Argentina has an excellent environment to grow oats of good quality , new varities and technology (herbicides, fungicides, crop management, etc.) Bonaerense Payé was an excellent material for all purposes, but now is susceptible to both rust. Bonaerense INTA Maja is a good material for forage or double purpose crop. Bonaerense INTA Calén is excellent to forage production in autum seed, and has a large grain production of very good quality in winter seed. Bonaerense INTA Canai has good production for hay, and it is excellent to grain production with good industrial quality. Bonaerense INTA Calén and Bonaerense INTA Canai grain yield was higher than the best varieties. They can produce more than 5.5 ton/ha, with more than 50 PH and groat percentage about 70%. Barrow Breeding Program have lines with good agronomic traits, good grain quality and yield, some of them with possibilities of realizing.
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